Composition of the Senate

Article VI, Section 2 of the Constitution provides:

The Senate shall be composed of twenty-four Senators who shall be elected at large by the qualified voters of the Philippines, as may be provided by law.

It is worthy to note that the composition of the Senate is smaller in number as compared to the House of Representatives. The members of this chamber are elected at large by the entire electorate. The rationale for this rule intends to make the Senate a training ground for national leaders and possibly a springboard for the presidency. It follows also that the Senator, having a national rather than only a district constituency, will have a broader outlook of the problems of the country, instead of being restricted by narrow viewpoints and interests. With such perspective, the Senate is likely to be more circumspect, or at least less impulsive, than the House of Representatives.

Qualifications to Become Senators

The qualifications for membership in the Senate are expressly stated in Section 3, Art. VI of the Constitution as follows:

No person shall be a Senator unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, and on the day of the election, is at least thirty-five years of age, able to read and write, a registered voter, and a resident of the Philippines for not less than two years immediately preceding the day of the election.

It is worthy to note that the age is fixed at 35 and must be possessed on the day of the elections, that is, when the polls are opened and the votes cast, and not on the day of the proclamation of the winners by the board of canvassers.

With regard to the residence requirement, it was ruled in the case of Lim v. Pelaez  that it must be the place where one habitually resides and to which he, after absence, has the intention of returning.

The enumeration laid down by the Constitution is exclusive under the Latin principle of expressio unius est exclusio alterius. This means that Congress cannot anymore add additional qualifications other than those provided by the Constitution.

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Organization of the Senate

Under the Constitution, “Congress shall convene once every year on the fourth Monday of July for its regular session...”. During this time, the Senate is organized to elect its officers. Specifically, the Constitution provides a definite statement, to wit:

The Senate shall elect its President and the House of Representatives its Speaker by a majority vote of all its respective members.

Each House shall choose such other officers as it may deem necessary.

x x x

(3) Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings ...

By virtue of these provisions of the Constitution, the Senate adopts its own rules, otherwise known as the “Rules of the Senate.” The Rules of the Senate provide the following officers: a President, a President Pro Tempore, a Secretary and a Sergeant-at-Arms.

Following this set of officers, the Senate as an institution can then be grouped into the Senate Proper and the Secretariat. The former belongs exclusively to the members of the Senate as well as its committees, while the latter renders support services to the members of the Senate.

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The Senate Proper

A. The Officers of the Senate

1. The Senate President

Widely regarded as the most powerful figure in the Senate, the Senate President is the presiding officer of the Senate as well as the leader of the majority group. Under the Constitution, the Senate President is regarded as third in line of succession, after the President and Vice-President.

Under Section 3 of Rule III of the Rules of the Senate, the Senate President is the Chief Executive of the Senate. His duties and powers are as follows:

(a) To preside over the sessions of the Senate on the days and at the hours designated by it; to call the Senate to order and, if there is a quorum, to order the reading of the Journal of the preceding session and, after the Senate shall have acted upon it, to dispose of the matters appearing in the Order of Business in accordance with the Rules;

(b) To decide all points of order;

(c) To sign all measures, memorials, joint and concurrent resolutions; issue warrants, orders of arrest, subpoena and subpoena duces tecum;

(d) To see to it that all resolutions of the Senate are complied with;

(e) To have general control over the session hall, the antechambers, corridors and offices of the Senate;

(f) To maintain order in the session hall, the antechambers, corridors and in the offices of the Senate, and whenever there is disorder, to take appropriate measures to quell it;

(g) To designate an Acting Sergeant-at-Arms, if the Sergeant-at-Arms resigns, is replaced or becomes incapacitated;

(h) To appoint the subordinate personnel of the Senate in conformity with the provisions of the General Appropriations Act;

(i) To dismiss any employee for cause, which dismissal in the case of permanent and classified employees shall be in conformity with the Civil Service Law; and

(j) To diminish or increase the number of authorized personnel by consolidating or separating positions or items whenever the General Appropriations Act so authorizes and the total amount of salaries or allocations does not exceed the amount earmarked therein.

2. The Senate President Pro Tempore

Like the President of the Senate, the Senate President Pro Tempore is also elected by the members of the Senate. In the U.S., by custom, he is the most senior member of the majority party. Although it is not exclusively followed here, for sometime in the past Senates, senior members of the majority party are often elected as Senate President Pro Tempore. Under Section 4 of Rule IV of the Rules of the Senate, the President Pro Tempore shall discharge the powers and duties of the President in the following cases:

(a) When the President is absent for one or more days;

(b) When the President is temporarily incapacitated; and

(c) In the event of the resignation, removal, death or absolute incapacity of the President.

3. The Majority Leader

In the modern Senate, the second in command is the majority leader, whose primary responsibility is to manage the legislative affairs of the chamber. While nothing in the Rules of the Senate expressly states the powers of the Majority Leader, to a great extent, he is very influential in the passage of bills. As the traditional Chairman of the Committee on Rules, the Majority Leader helps formulate, promote, negotiate and defend the majority’s legislative program, particularly on the floor.

4. The Minority Leader

The minority group chooses from among themselves the Minority Leader who is considered as the titular head of the minority in the Senate and oftentimes called a “shadow president.”

In many past rigodons of the Senate or the so-called Senate “coups,” sometimes the minority leader becomes the President and the ousted President becomes the minority leader.

The basic duties of the Minority Leader is that he becomes the spokesman for his party or group or coalition and enunciates its policies. He is expected to be alert and vigilant in defense of the minority’s rights. It is his function and duty to criticize constructively the policies and programs of the majority, and to this end employ parliamentary tactics and give close attention to all proposed legislation.

The Rules of the Senate gives the President Pro Tempore and the Majority and Minority Leaders unique privileges as all are ex-officio members of all the permanent committees of the Senate.

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B. The Senate Committees

At the core of Congress’ lawmaking, investigative and oversight functions lies the committee system. This is so because much of the business of Congress, it has been well said, is done in the committee. Specific problems, whether local or national in scope, are initially brought to the forum of congressional committees where they are subjected to rigid and thorough discussions.

Congressional hearings and investigations on matters dealing with every field of legislative concern have frequently been conducted by congressional committees.

To a large extent, therefore, the committee system plays a very significant role in the legislative process. Congressional responses and actions vis-a-vis growing national problems and concerns have considerably relied upon the efficiency and effectiveness of the committee structure, system and expertise. As pointed out by Woodrow Wilson regarding the important roles played by different committees of Congress:

The House sits, not for serious discussion, but to sanction the conclusions of the Committees as rapidly as possible. It legislates in its committee rooms; not by the deliberation of majorities, but by the resolutions of specially-commissioned minorities; so that it is not far from the truth to say that Congress in session is Congress on public exhibition, while Congress in its committee rooms is Congress at work.

On the other hand, the merits of Polsby’s view with regard to the importance of the committee system can be well considered:

Any proposal that weakens the capabilities of congressional committees weakens Congress. Congressional committees are the listening posts of Congress. They accumulate knowledge about the performance of governmental agencies and about the effects of governmental programs and performance on private citizens. They provide incentives to members of Congress to involve themselves in the detailed understanding of governmental functioning. They provide a basis - virtually the only well institutionalized basis in the House of Representatives - for understanding and for influencing public policy. 

The present committee system in the Senate has by far been the product of strong years of Philippine legislative experience. It draws its strength from the inherent functions it is mandated to perform, i.e., to assist the Congress in coming up with well studied legislative policy enactments. Yet the complexity of problems that our country is currently facing and the growing needs and demands of our people for a more assertive role on the part of Congress cannot but require us to assess the effectiveness as well as the responsiveness of the congressional committee structure and system. In order to survive and meet the challenges, Congress must adjust to external demands and cope with internal stresses. It must be pointed out that social, economic, and political developments generate demands that the legislature pass legislation or take other action to meet constitutional and public expectations concerning the general welfare. The continuing rise of unemployment, poverty, economic depression, scandals, crises and calamities of various kinds, energy problem and accelerating technological innovations, all intensify pressures upon Congress. Political or governmental shifts, aggressive presidential leadership, partisan realignments, and momentous and controversial Supreme Court rulings, among other things, also drive the congressional workload.

However, the effects of external demands create interpersonal stresses within Congress, and in the Senate in particular. For instance, a ballooning workload (external demand) of some committees has caused personal or committee scrambles for jurisdiction (internal stress). Other tensions that may be considered range from the growth in the member-ship of various committees, jurisdictional disputes among several committees, shifts in its personnel, factional disputes and members’ shifting attitudes or norms. Such conflicts surface in recurrent debates over pay, requisites, committee jurisdictions, rules scheduling, and budgetary procedures which necessitate the call for an assessment of the present structure of the Senate Committee System.
The present committee structure of the Senate is composed of 36 standing committees and five ad hoc and oversight committees. These standing committees with their respective jurisdictions are as follows:

Committee on Accountability of Public Officers and Investigations

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to, including investigation of, malfeasance, misfeasance and nonfeasance in office by officers and employees of the government, its branches, agencies, subdivisions and instrumentalities; implementation of the provision of the Constitution on nepotism; and investigation of any matter of public interest on its own initiative or brought to its attention by any member of the Senate.

Committee on Accounts

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to the auditing and adjustment of all accounts chargeable against the funds for the expenses and activities of the Senate.

Committee on Agrarian Reform

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to agrarian reform, landed estates, and implementation of the agrarian land reform provisions of the Constitution.

Committee on Agriculture and Food

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to agriculture, food production and agri-business, including agricultural experimental stations, agricultural economics and research; soil survey and conservation; agricultural education; technical extension services; animal husbandry; livestock quarantine; agricultural support price; and fisheries and aquatic resources.

Committee on Banks, Financial Institutions and Currencies

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to banks, financial institutions, government and private currencies, capital markets, mutual funds, securitization, coinage and circulation of money.

Committee on Civil Service and Government Reorganization

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to the Civil Service and the status of officers and employees of the government including their appointment, discipline, retirement; their compensation privileges, benefits and incentives; implementation of the constitutional provisions on the rights of government workers to form and join labor organizations; public sector labor-management relations and collective negotiation agreements; reorganization of the government or any of its branches, agencies, subdivisions or instrumentalities; all human resource development programs pertaining to the government; and all other matters relating to the bureaucracy.

Committee on Constitutional Amendments, Revision of Codes and Laws

Jurisdiction: All matters proposing amendments to the Constitution of the Philippines and the compilation and revision of existing codes and laws; election laws and implementation of constitutional provisions on initiative and referendum on legislative acts; recall of elective officials; the role and rights of people’s organizations; and sectoral or party-list representation.

Committee on Cooperatives

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to cooperatives, both urban and rural-based, including but not limited to farm credit and farm security, cooperative movements, marketing and consumers’ organizations; and the implementation of the Cooperative Code of the Philippines.

Committee on Cultural Communities

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to cultural communities.

Committee on Economic Affairs

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to economic planning and programming; the planning of domestic and foreign indebtedness; general economic development; and coordination, regulation and diversification of industry and investments.

Committee on Education, Arts and Culture

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to education, schools, colleges, universities; implementation of the provisions of the Constitution regarding the establishment of free public elementary and secondary education, scholarship grants, subsidies and incentives to deserving students; non-formal, informal, indigenous learning systems, and adult education; the preservation, enrichment and evolution of Filipino arts and culture; establishment and maintenance of libraries, museums, shrines, monuments, and other historical sites and edifices; training programs and cultural and artistic programs of international institutions and organizations operating in the Philippines, such as the UNESCO; and special commemorative events such as the observance of the centennial of Philippine Independence.

Committee on Energy

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to the exploration, exploitation, development, extraction, importation, refining, transport, marketing, distribution, conservation, or storage of all forms of energy products and resources such as from fossil fuels like petroleum, coal, natural gas and gas liquids, nuclear fuel resources; geothermal resources and non-conventional, existing and potential forms of energy resources; and generation, transmission and distribution of electric power.

Committee on Environment and Natural Resources

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to the conservation and protection of the environment, the regulation of the impact of human activities on the same, the promotion of environmental awareness of our citizens, the renewal of resources in damaged ecosystems and other environment-related issues; and all matters relating to the administration, management, development, protection, exploration, storage, renewal, regulation and licensing, and wise utilization of the country’s national reserves including, but not limited to forest, mineral, public land, off-shore areas and the development of industries based on these resources.

Committee on Ethics and Privileges

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to the conduct, rights, privileges, safety, dignity, integrity and reputation of the Senate and its Members.

Committee on Finance

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to funds for the expenditures of the National Government and for the payment of public indebtedness; auditing of accounts and expenditures of the National Government; claims against the government; inter-governmental revenue sharing; and, in general, all matters relating to public expenditures.

Committee on Foreign Relations

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to the relations of the Philippines with other nations generally; diplomatic and consular services; the Association of Southeast Asian Nations; the United Nations Organization and its agencies; multilateral organizations; all international agreements, obligations and contracts; and overseas Filipinos.

Committee on Games, Amusement and Sports

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to games and amusement, such as lotteries, jai-alai, horse racing, dog racing, wrestling, boxing, basketball and all other sports, as well as matters relating to amateur sports development.

Committee on Government Corporations and Public Enterprises

Jurisdiction: All questions affecting government corporations, including all amendments to their charters; the interests of the government in the different industrial and commercial enterprises; and privatization.

Committee on Health and Demography

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to public health in general, medical, hospital and quarantine services; population issues, concerns, policies and programs affecting individuals and their families, their effects on national, social and economic conditions.

Committee on Justice and Human Rights

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to the organization and administration of justice, civil courts, penitentiaries and reformatory schools; probation; impeachment proceedings against constitutional officers and other officers legally removable by impeachment; registration of land titles; immigration and naturalization; the implementation of the provisions of the Constitution on human rights; and all matters pertaining to the efficiency and reforms in the prosecution service.

Committee on Labor, Employment and Human Resources Development

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to labor employment and human resource development; maintenance of industrial peace; promotion of employer-employee cooperation; labor education, standards and statistics; organization of the labor market including recruitment, training and placement of workers and exports of human resources; foreign workers in the Philippines; promotion and development of workers’ organizations; and promotion and development of employment-intensive technology.

Committee on Local Government

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to autonomous regions, provinces, cities, special metropolitan political subdivisions, municipalities and barangays.

Committee on National Defense and Security

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to national defense and external and internal threats to national security; the Armed Forces of the Philippines; pension plans and fringe benefits of war veterans and military retirees; citizens army selective service; forts; arsenals; military bases, reservations and yards; coast, geodetic and meteorological surveys; civil defense; and military research and development.

Committee on Peace, Unification and Reconciliation

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to peace, internal armed conflict resolution, political negotiation, cessation of hostilities, amnesty, rebel returnees, integration and development, national unification and reconciliation.

Committee on Public Information and Mass Media

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to public information, mass communication and broadcast services; the implementation of the provisions of the Constitution regarding ownership and management of mass media and the advertising industry; the development and promotion of information technology; and all matters relating to the artistic standards and quality of the motion picture and television industry.

Committee on Public Order and Illegal Drugs

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to peace and order; the Philippine National Police; the Bureau of Jail Management; the BFP; private security agencies; the use, sale, acquisition, possession, cultivation, manufacture and distribution of prohibited and regulated drugs and other similar substances as provided for under pertinent laws, and the prosecution of offenders, rehabilitation of drug users and dependents, including the formulation of drug-related policies.

Committee on Public Services

Jurisdiction: All matters affecting public services and utilities; communications; land, air, river and sea transportation including railroads, inter-island navigation, and lighthouses; and the grant or amendment of legislative franchises.

Committee on Public Works

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to planning, construction, maintenance, improvement and repair of public buildings, highways, bridges, roads, ports, airports, harbors and parks; drainage, flood control and protection; and irrigation and water utilities.

Committee on Rules

Jurisdiction: All matters affecting the Rules of the Senate; the calendar as well as parliamentary rules and the order and manner of transacting business and the creation of committees.

The Chairman of the Committee shall be the Majority Leader of the Senate. The Vice-Chairmen shall be the Assistant Majority Leaders.

Committee on Science and Technology

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to science and technology, including scientific and technological research, development and advancement.

Committee on Social Justice, Welfare and Rural Development

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to rural development and welfare, and the implementation of the provisions of the Constitution on social justice.

Committee on Tourism

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to tourism and the tourist industry.

Committee on Trade and Commerce

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to domestic and foreign trade and private corporations; patents, copyrights, trade names and trademarks; standards, weights, measures and designs; quality control; control and stabilization of prices of commodities; consumer protection; handicraft and cottage industries; and marketing of commodities.

Committee on Urban Planning, Housing and Resettlement

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to urban land reform, planning, housing, resettlement and urban community development.

Committee on Ways and Means

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to revenue generally; taxes and fees; tariffs; loans and other sources and forms of revenue.

Committee on Youth, Women and Family Relations

Jurisdiction: All matters relating to the youth, women and family relations.

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The Secretariat

The process of legislation, to begin with, has not been merely confined to the enactment of laws or the passage of legislative proposals or resolutions. Though the latter is considered as its primary function, Congress has likewise performed other equally important functions, such as those flowing from its investigative and oversight powers.

Essentially, therefore, the process of legislation must be viewed as a dynamic process. Although theoretically associated with the operation of Congress, the legislative process likewise involves an elaborate network of external relations, linkages and coordination with other institutions, agencies, organizations and interest groups in society.

It has been said that the legislature is not an isolated institution. As one of the traditional branches of the government, Congress must continuously interact with both the executive and the judiciary. To gain strength and advantages, it must establish linkages with the various sectors of society including the academe, media, and other research-oriented groups. Likewise, to assert a more relevant role, the legislature must always be conscious of its role in checking the excesses of the administration, in educating the public about the issues of the day, as well as in overseeing the conduct, behavior and performance of government agencies and officials in the discharge of their official functions.

It is therefore in the context of the above roles and functions of Congress that lawmakers find it extremely necessary to rely upon their staff and support services who will help them not only in the gathering of needed basic information and relevant technical data, but also in building feedback mechanism, linkages and ties with the socio-economic and political environment.

The significant and essential role assumed by legislative support services, moreover, can easily be seen through their active participation in the different stages of lawmaking. Laws are enacted precisely to respond to or meet with a given societal problem - both actual and perceived. Legislation is therefore prompted by the necessity to address the needs and problems in society. Thus, while legislators are charged with the task of making laws, a great deal of ideas, data and tools necessary in the initiation, formulation and preparation of legislative proposals are gathered and collected through the assistance and initiative of the legislative staff and support services.

Thus, the nature and form of support service, as far as this is concerned, must indispensably be responsive to the needs of legislation. The services to be rendered cannot always be routinary and constant but must be flexible in order to adapt, from time to time, to the ever-changing needs and requirements of the Senate. Of course, there are specific services which ought to be religiously complied with in accordance with the mandate of our Constitution, such as the preparation of journals and transcripts. But, to a large extent, support services require a certain degree of procedural flexibility and adaptability, especially in the technical substance and content of legislation in the Philippine context.

The Senate Secretariat performs all kinds of support services needed by the senators. The nature and form of such services range from legislative to administrative, financial and security services required not only by the senators themselves but also by their office staff and employees.

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A. The Senate Secretary

The Senate Secretary, who is elected by the members of the Senate, is the head of the Secretariat. He assists the Senate President in extending adequate and timely legislative and administrative support to the offices of Senators. He exercises supervision and control over all the offices of the service units and officers and employees of the Senate Secretariat. He formulates plans, policies and programs aimed at professionalizing the institution. He is assisted by three (3) Deputy Secretaries and the Senate Legal Counsel who are separately in-charge of legislation, administration and finance, special support services, and legal services. For the maintenance of security and order in the Senate, whether in session or not, the responsibility is lodged in the Senate Sergeant-at-Arms.

Offices Under the Office of the Secretary

Among the offices directly under the supervision of the Senate Secretary are the Senate Tax Study and Research Office (STSRO), the Protocol Office, the Policy Studies Group and the Legislative Budget Research and Monitoring Office (LBRMO). The STSRO conducts studies and formulates reform proposals on tax-related issues including drafting of the appropriate bill and estimation of revenue impact, conducts surveys on tax and other fiscal matters, and provides technical assistance during deliberations on tax proposals. The Office of Protocol takes charge of important external and internal activities of the Senate that may involve the visits of foreign dignitaries and the members of the Senate in official missions abroad. The LBRMO coordinates with the House of Representatives and the Department of Budget and Management on the implementation of General Appropriations Act, reviews the performance of the national government’s revenue collection and expenditure, assesses the implementation of foreign-assisted projects and locally-funded projects, and responds to queries of agencies, LGUs and GOCCs on matters within the purview of the Committee on Finance. Other offices also under the direct control of the Office of the Secretary include the Management Operating and Audit Bureau, EDP-MIS Bureau and the Public Information and Media Relations Office.

The delivery of legislative support services is directly the responsibility not only of the Senate Secretary but also of the Deputy Secretary for Legislation.

1. The Deputy Secretary for Legislation

The Office of the Deputy Secretary for Legislation advises and assists the Office of the Secretary and the Senate Proper in the formulation of legislative policies and programs of the Senate. Headed by a Deputy Secretary and assisted by the Executive Director for Legislation, it exercises general supervision over all offices and units of the Secretariat that provide technical, plenary, committee support services, publication and printing, and reference services. It is also responsible for the provision of legislative services in support of various committee needs, research service, parliamentary counseling, requests for bill drafting, bill indexing and monitoring and other activities involved in the law-making process. This Office is composed of five bureaus, namely: the Legislative Technical Affairs Bureau, the Legislative Plenary Affairs Bureau, the Legislative Reference Bureau, the Senate Publications Bureau and the Committee Affairs Bureau.

Moreover, under Rule VII, Section 9 of the Rules of the Senate, in the temporary absence or incapacity of the Secretary of the Senate, the Deputy Secretary for Legislation shall act as the Secretary of the Senate.

2. Deputy Secretary for External Affairs

The Deputy Secretary for External Affairs and Relations advises and assists the Senate Secretary in the formulation and implementation of external affairs and relations policies and programs of the Senate.  His office aims to institutionalize an efficient system of networking and interaction with its external environment such as the executive branch, the academe, the private sector, NGOs, national and international organizations, the diplomatic corps and parliamentary organizations.

3. The Deputy Secretary for Administration and Financial Services

The Deputy Secretary for Administration and Financial Services advises and assists the Senate Secretary in the formulation and implementation of administrative and financial policies and programs of the Senate. Assisted by the Executive Director for Administration, he exercises supervision over the offices and units of the Secretariat that provide administrative, financial management and general services. Its Administrative Management Bureau assists the Senate management in the formulation and review of administrative systems and procedures, policy guidelines and regulations, and provides direction and supervision on the activities involved in human resource management, medical and dental, records management and mailing and property and procurement services. The Maintenance and General Services Bureau is directly involved in the maintenance of all the physical facilities of the Senate, which include the buildings and grounds, electrical and electromechanical equipment, transportation, sound, telephone and other communication systems. The Financial Management Bureau advises and assists in the formulation and review of financial systems and procedures, policy guidelines and regulations. It provides direction and supervision in the accounting, budget and cash management, and in the preparation of reports on funds released to the Senate.

4. The Senate Legal Counsel

The Senate Legal Counsel has the rank of a Deputy Secretary. He is in charge of all the legal issues affecting the Senate and the Secretariat. Under this office is a Legal Service which advises the Senate Secretariat on all legal issues and concerns. It drafts and interprets contracts in behalf of the Senate. Moreover, the Legal Service is the one in charge of investigating offenses committed by certain officers and employees of the Secretariat in violation of Civil Service Rules and Regulations.

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B. The Senate Sergeant-at-Arms

Like the Secretary of the Senate, the Sergeant-at-Arms is elected by the members of the Senate. His duties and functions are expressly stated in Rule VI, Section 8 of the Rules of the Senate, to wit:

(a) To keep under his custody the mace of the Senate;

(b) To attend the sessions of the Senate;

(c) To be responsible for the security and maintenance of order in the session hall, antechambers, corridors and offices of the Senate, whether in session or not, in accordance with the orders of the President or the Secretary;

(d) To execute or serve, personally or through his delegates, the summons which may be issued by the Senate or by the permanent or special committees or by the President himself;

(e) To be responsible for the strict compliance by his subordinates of their respective duties. He may impose upon them corrective or disciplinary measures for just cause, including a recommendation to the President of the Senate, through the Secretary, for their dismissal; and

(f) To recommend to the President, through the Secretary, approval of the uniform to be worn by the personnel assigned to serve under him in the session hall.

The Sergeant-at-Arms is also assisted by an Assistant Sergeant-at-Arms.  

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